The origin of tile production is pottery, which is one of the most ancient human arts. The earliest works of this art in Iran date back to about 10,000 BC, which was in non-flowered form, and the first pottery kilns date back to about 6,000 BC. Continued advances in the pottery industry have led to changes in the manufacturing process, including the conversion of kilns, the invention of pottery wheels, as well as the quality of pottery materials such as painting and glazing. The time of glazing began to allow waterproofing, as well as painting and beautification of containers and pottery and the preparation of tiles around 5,000 years ago.
The earliest forms of tile date back to pre-historic times when the use of clay as a building material was developed in several early civilizations . Early modern tiles were roughly shaped and lacked the durability of modern tiles. Tile materials were extracted from the riverbeds in the building blocks and dried in the sun. Early tiles were crude, but even 6,000 years ago people used them for decoration by painting and carving delicate tiles.
The Evolution of the Tile
1 – Firing Tile
The ancient Egyptians were the first to discover the clay tiles cooked in the furnace were more durable and water-resistant . Many ancient civilizations used small square clay cooked tiles for decoration in architecture . The buildings of the ancient cities of Mesopotamia were decorated with red glazed pottery and colorful tiles.
2 – Glazing Tile
Iranian tiles were influenced by tiles imported from China. These tiles were used for decorative purposes throughout South Asia, North Africa, Spain and even Europe. Since Islamic art originated from the human imagination and was instrumental in the development of Islamic religion, craftsmen turned to tiles of light color and complex texture or texture. Bold enamel tiles were arranged in patterns of large mosaics and subtle color changes. Muslim craftsmen used metallic oxides such as tin, copper, cobalt, magnesium and antimony to glaze the tile, which made the glaze stronger and firmer. In the 15th century, metal oxide glazed tiles became common in Italy and gradually penetrated among northern Italian craftsmen. Important European business centers paid attention to these local motifs, with some of these tiles still being used, such as Delft (from Delft in the Netherlands) and Magulica (from Mallorca in Spain).
3 – Modern Tile
Most commercial construction companies today use the Press Dust method. The mixture is first pressed to the desired shape and then glazed (may not be glazed as well) and then baked in the oven. Some artisans may produce the tiles in the desired shape by pressing mortar or flattening the dough and cutting it using a mold like pastry. Whatever the method of cutting the tile, it needs to be cooked to harden. Clay purity, cooking time and furnace temperature are factors that influence the price and quality of the tile. Furnace temperature varies from 900 to 2,500 degrees Fahrenheit. The lower the furnace temperature, the higher the porosity of the tile and the softer the glaze. Higher temperatures produce denser tiles and firmer glazing.