Application of nanotechnology in ceramic tile industry
Nanotechnology has been dubbed the fourth wave of the industrial revolution. A remarkable phenomenon that has emerged as a necessity in all scientific disciplines and is one of the new technologies that is evolving at a tremendous pace. Since the early 1980s, we have been seeing new innovations in materials design every day that are more efficient in strength, appearance, durability and durability than traditional materials. Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary science that deals with the fields of material engineering, medicine, pharmacy and drug design, veterinary, biology, applied physics, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, chemical engineering, and agricultural engineering. Analysts believe that nanotechnology, biotechnology, and information and communication technology (ICT) are the three sciences that shape the Fourth Industrial Revolution.
The introduction of nanotechnology into the industry has created increased value in products. Among the industries where nanotechnology has been able to generate significant benefits is the ceramic tile industry. In the ceramic tile industry, nanotechnology has been instrumental in the manufacturing of raw materials for the industry. For example, nano materials can be described as a coating that is applied to the surface of polished ceramics by equipment in order to obtain certain characteristics in the final product. The three main uses of the nanocomposites in these products are to waterproof tile surfaces, to stain them, and to increase gloss and surface transparency.
Definition of the word NANO
A nanometer is a millimeter and a millimeter. Any material can be transformed into smaller nanometer-sized particles by specific methods. At this scale, the physical, chemical, and biological properties of atoms and molecules are different from the normal properties of matter, such that small scales of material appear to have unique and different properties, giving rise to new achievements in different sciences.
In general, nanotechnology means the engineering of materials in atomic dimensions and the fabrication of materials with completely unique and different properties on the nanometer scale. One nanometer for different materials is about the size of 5 to 100 atoms. The physical, chemical, and biological properties of matter in these dimensions are quite different from those in the macro-scale. Nano-materials for different and unique properties must be less than 100 nm in at least one dimension (length, width, height) in order to observe changes in properties relative to larger particles. For example, nano-antibacterial substances are at least one dimension below 100 nm, and their antibacterial properties are clearly visible in such a way that these nanomaterials can destroy the life-cycle of bacteria. Other forms of nanomaterials include :
Nanoparticles : The particles of matter are plated together and are below 100 nm in one dimension and have different properties than their blocking state.
Nanomaterials and Nanotubes : They are hollow and hollow in shape and are less than 100 nm in two dimensions and have different properties than their bulk state.
Nanoparticles : They are below 100 nm in three dimensions and have different properties than their bulk state.
Applications of nanotechnology in the ceramic tile industry include
These types of tiles have the ability to kill germs by different mechanisms by having specific nanoparticles in their glaze formulation. Antibacterial nanoparticles generally kill the germs through mechanisms such as direct contact with the bacterium, cell wall destruction, cell membrane destruction, DNA damage, altered metabolic system, respiratory dysfunction, and inactivation of proteins present in the bacterium.
These tiles have photocatalytic nanoparticles, which means that catalytically enhances the catalytic activity by irradiating the surface. Photocatalytic nanoparticles produce free hydroxyl radicals and free oxygen at the tile surface. This ability to decompose organic contaminants, undesirable odors and antibacterial properties. This type of tile is called Selfcleaning or Easycleaning.
These tiles prevent the particles from settling on the tile surface by making their hydrophobic properties on the surface and facilitate their washing and cleaning. Polymer-type coatings are sometimes used to create hydrophobic surfaces on these products that are not nanometers; nano-hydrophobic tiles must have nanometer-sized particles in order to perform the penetration mechanism and exhibit their true performance. Some companies use metal oxide particles to increase coating strength.
Basic polyurethane waxes
These types of waxes are not nanostructured and only form a thin polymeric layer on the tile, causing the bottom to be filled and the tiles to be filled.
Types of nano materials used in the ceramic tile industry
Nano Materials A : These materials contain inorganic nanoparticles (mainly silica) and because they are very small in size and nanometer-sized, they easily cover all pores on the polished tile and increase their gloss.
Nano Materials B : This type of material is applied to the tile after the nanocrystalline A material and forms a polymeric layer containing functional groups on the surface of the tile and pores filled by type A nanomaterial.
Digitization and Big Data in the Ceramic Tile Industry
The globalization of the economy and the arrival of the fourth industrial revolution, or digitalization of industry, means that we need to know the environment better, and companies need to know how to manage production and distribution in order to improve their decision-making and time-saving processes, and ultimately industrial activities. And most importantly they need to know more about their customers. Focusing on production, product and sales in recent decades has led us to focus on customers. For this reason, Big Data has to be considered in processes and resource allocation, and ultimately companies need to learn how to manage their intangible assets alongside their tangible assets.
This process starts with the customer and ends with the customer. For this reason, companies need to do their utmost to properly manage the flow of information in their environment and to have the necessary information and data in a timely and complete manner to help the organization in its business management decisions. Help and build strength. In this new digital-physical world, new principles are emerging in the ceramic tile industry. Such as website traffic analysis, inbound marketing, selling through electronic platforms or e-commerce sales channels. All of which points to the need to work with individuals or teams that have digital skills and are fully aligned with company sales and marketing policies.
One of the indicators for measuring the level of involvement and use of information technologies by companies active in the industry is the digital skill coefficient of individuals and companies. This is an index that indicates the level of knowledge and executive ability of companies in digital skills. Give. In fact, it seems that the digital skills that should be available to companies are not yet fully recognized, despite the fact that in the business world these tools have long existed and are very effective in relation to corporate sales and marketing policies. Be. The very rapid development and ever-expanding evolution of new technologies has made it difficult to stay up to date and only leading technology companies can move along.
In the context of global trade and investment in global technologies and R&D & I, the ceramics industry has also implemented Big Data technology in resource allocation and processes over the past few years. In fact, there is a growing interest in Big Data implementation among ceramic companies in their management and decision making processes. Research results show that the use of new information technology in ceramic companies is already in its infancy and is gradually growing. Today, special focus is on the process of production, sales, product development and maintaining and improving business turnover.
The use of social networks in the ceramic industry has a limited scope and is not seen as a necessity. The use of images, videos and photos is more than anything else. Currently surveys in European countries, companies active in the industry are making the most use of Facebook as a social network in the ceramics industry, followed by YouTube, Instagram and Twitter. These companies use social networks directly in their relationships with distributors, suppliers and customers. The main reasons for using and sharing information and content on social networks are to observe the performance and performance of competitors and what other professional companies have to say about the industry and what programs they have, as well as supplier and What activities do distributors in the value chain do?
One of the main reasons that industry executives focus on using social networks is generally to promote their brand and products, as well as develop business strategies and manage communications.
Finding new products, viewing the competition and researching and updating information about the ceramic tile industry and related sectors are other aspects of using these networks. It takes place within companies and only in some companies does it get outside experts and teams of experts. Therefore the use of new information technologies to manage and improve customer communication is still in its infancy.
Analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the Iranian ceramic tile industry
The tangible growth of Iran’s ceramic tile figures in the last two decades shows the potential and strengths of this important industry. A comparison of the strengths of the ceramic tile industry across Iran and the world shows that these strengths are somewhat common throughout the world and some of them are specific to Iran. The most important strengths of the ceramic tile industry are :
In the field of industrial activities of the country, the field that is old and still has good performance is scarce. Iran’s ceramic tile industry is one of the most important indigenous industries in the country. In most archaeological discoveries, earthenware is seen as an important means of living for ancient Iranians, and from that time on, raw materials (eg clay) were found in the country for the production of earthenware. At present, the industry is performing relatively well compared to other industries in the country.
As an Iranian art
Another important factor in the success of the Iranian ceramic tile industry is the application of Iranian taste, art and taste in the products of this industry. Iranian taste and art can certainly lead to significant success in this industry.
Access to resources and raw materials
Another major advantage of the ceramic tile industry is the presence of over 30% of its raw materials produced domestically. By focusing on raw material processing and making the necessary investments, it can prevent the import of raw materials, currency outflows, delays in supplying materials and problems for manufacturers.
The dynamics of the ceramic tile industry
The ceramic tile industry is a dynamic industry and can adapt quickly to the changing needs and tastes of the community. Using up-to-date technologies in factories can easily change the color, design, size and other parameters of ceramic tile products and produce different products depending on customer needs and tastes in different markets. This flexibility is not seen in some other industries, such as the automotive industry, and even the entire production line equipment needs to be replaced to produce a variety of products for different markets and sectors. Customer needs will be very difficult.
Relatively high added value
Although ceramic tile products are part of traditional ceramics in the category of ceramics, they have a relatively high added value due to the advantages mentioned in this article. Today, this industry is one of the few industries in the country that has a relatively good profit margin, including the reason for the good consumer market that exists within the country and its neighbors.
Supply and demand mismatch
Due to lack of proper planning of production capacity of the country and allocation of large volume of investments in this industry, we are faced with surplus production in Iran, which is one of the main reasons for high tendency to invest in this industry. No. The main problem here is the lack of scientific research on the market and consumption of these products and, more interestingly, the investments sometimes made by people who are not familiar with the industry and are only thinking about achieving high profit in the short run.
Incomplete industrial rings
Due to the lack of proper strategy and planning in the industry, most of the investments were made only on a part of the large-scale industry, which involved only the purchase of ceramic tile machinery and equipment. Research shows that there has been no significant planning and activity in the field of raw material processing as well as the design and manufacture of machinery, equipment and components required by the industry.
Requires high volume of labor and energy
It may be widely believed that access to cheap manpower is one of the advantages of Iranian industries, but domestic productivity is about one-seventh of the developed countries. Also, in our country there is no culture and training on how to use energy efficiently and every year in different sectors, including industry, a lot of energy is wasted. Therefore, costs resulting from low labor efficiency and non-compliance with the principles of optimum use of energy increase the cost of finished products and in many cases reduce the ability to compete in international markets from Iranian kangaroo production.
Lack of cohesion and industrial memory
What is evident in the activities of manufacturing companies in this area is that in different parts of the industry, less memory is used in the past. The industrial units of the country experience each problem individually and sometimes secretly and at high cost alone. While many issues and issues within companies are similar and likely to have already been resolved, there are experiences within the country. Institutions in the leading countries of the industry, including Spain and Italy, have established missions whose mission is to create a focal point for gathering experience and information in the industry so that individuals can work with appropriate solutions without error and error. To find their problems.
Not paying attention to the role of raw materials and their processing
As the issue of incomplete loops in the industry suggests, failure to complete these loops in the field of raw materials has led to higher costs due to the importation of some materials. For example, despite the abundance of kaolin resources and mines in Iran, due to the lack of knowledge and investment in the field in the country, the costs of importing these materials are borne by the manufacturers while the factories through joint ventures. They can solve this problem in groups.
Lack of marketing system, export infrastructure and international distribution channels
By looking at the branding, marketing, and sales processes of major and major ceramic tile companies, and comparing them with the activities of Iranian companies, there are significant differences. Many of the industry’s leading companies have marketing, sales, and distribution channels and have access to lucrative international markets. Proper business and political interactions with countries such as Turkey can help create a proper marketing and distribution system.
Energy consumption optimization and energy reduction strategies In the ceramic tile industry
Energy plays an important role in the various economic sectors as a productive input alongside labor and capital, and is one of the main pillars of the country’s economic growth and development. Given the significant share of the country’s total energy consumption in industry and the low efficiency of energy use in industries compared to the global average, this necessitates addressing this issue. Energy management analysis in industries is one of the most important topics in economic research. Given the rapid growth of the country’s ceramic tile industry in the last decade and the energy being consumed by the industry, the importance of energy management in this industry is doubling. The results indicate that there is a great potential for energy consumption reduction in the Iranian ceramic tile industries, which is achieved by the establishment of energy management systems and the application of technology-based solutions and equipment in the factories and a significant share of the related costs. It reduces energy and increases the competitiveness of companies in global markets.
Industrial growth and economic development largely depend on the amount and level of efficient use of energy carriers. Iran’s per capita final energy consumption in the agricultural, domestic, public and commercial sectors, transportation and industry is 3.3, 1.9, 1.7, 1.5 times the global average and 1.6 times the natural gas consumption, respectively. Energy intensity is a measure of energy efficiency at the national economy level of each country that is calculated by dividing the final energy consumption (or primary energy supply) by GDP. Iran is one of the countries with high energy intensity. In 2014, the world’s primary energy supply intensity index based on exchange rate and purchasing power parity in Iran was more than 2.7 and 1.4 times the world average. Energy efficiency indexes such as labor and capital productivity measure the rate of output of goods and services produced compared to inputs.
The energy efficiency index is obtained by dividing the value of the products by the amount of energy consumed (the inverse of the final energy consumption). To calculate national energy efficiency, GDP can be divided by the amount of final energy consumption. As can be seen in Table 4, end-use consumption is broken down by sector, and the industry sector has a major share of Radar Energy consumption. According to available statistics, Iran’s final energy consumption per capita is 1.71 times the world average and its natural gas consumption per capita is 1.6 times the world average. Iran’s per capita energy consumption in industrial sectors is 1.5 times the world average and 4.8 percent of urban living costs are related to energy costs and 61 percent carbon dioxide from natural gas combustion.
One of the most notable developments in the energy field over the past several decades has been a significant reduction in energy intensity in developed countries, which can be attributed to the presence of technology-efficient manufacturing plants that make the most use of production factors including energy. Whereas developing countries have a lower share of renewable energy with lower energy efficiency and industrial production orientation towards lower technology and higher energy products.Technology activity levels are among the most important contributors to the energy intensity of the manufacturing industry, with increasing economic activity levels increasing energy consumption, while improving technology at the same activity level reduces energy consumption and thus decreases energy intensity.
Time and energy in any industry are among the most likely to be wasted among all inputs. Energy feeds a large part of technology and machinery into various manufacturing activities, and without energy a large portion of capital cannot be set up and used.
Energy consumption optimization and energy reduction strategies
Following are the strategies that have been investigated in recent research to reduce energy consumption and obtain acceptable results in energy reduction :
1- Using regenerative burners for high operating temperatures will save fuel consumption by combustion air preheating and increase combustion efficiency.
2- Using improved burners for high temperatures, wasted temperatures and exhaust gas are collected from the burner nozzle body and the heat output from the burner nozzle increases.
3. Application of modified recuperator burners for medium and high temperatures through pre-heating mechanism.
4- Preheating the inlet air to the system increases combustion efficiency.
5- In hot tube systems, these tubes have high heat transfer efficiency and have the least heat loss during long distances during transmission, keeping them low cost. Compared to other heat exchangers, they have low running costs.
6. Thermoelectric generators generate electricity directly from the waste heat and do not need to convert thermal energy to mechanical and then mechanical to electrical.
7. Thermionic generator equipment is used to recover lost heat at high temperatures and generates electricity through the temperature difference between two interfaces without the use of mechanical actuators.
8- Generator equipment converts radiant energy into electricity directly and has higher efficiency than other direct electrical converting equipment.
9. Heat pumps transfer heat from the source to the location needed for use (with low energy consumption) with minimal loss.
10. Vertical Driver Gas Inlet Control System As a function of indoor air humidity, the quality of the tire’s moisture content was not affected by the tire’s humidity, reducing the driver’s gas volume by 45% to only 9.9% of the tile’s thermal energy consumption.
11- Thermal oil based recovery system increases the amount of thermal recovery in the furnace exhaust and reduces energy consumption in the drive.
Hereby we are so honored to announce that on the beginning of the Iranian new year (Norouz 1397) and start a new chapter in the field of industry, The Agent exclusive of Tabriz Tile and Kergres in Kiev city of Ukraine launched and has started to work as the first Iranian mono brand shop with 200m2 area in one of the best section of this city.
Due to diverse and highly competitive quality of European products it has welcomed to construction companies, architects and the public.
Thanks to the Gold and all the colleagues who are active in main office and factory, we wish success, happiness and many great days ahead and hope to have further development of the export markets in near future.
Thanks to the Gold and all the colleagues who are active in main office and factory, we wish success, happiness and many great days ahead and hope to have further development of the export markets in near future.