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Introduction

The origin of tile production is pottery, which is one of the most ancient human arts. The earliest works of this art in Iran date back to about 10,000 BC, which was in non-flowered form, and the first pottery kilns date back to about 6,000 BC. Continued advances in the pottery industry have led to changes in the manufacturing process, including the conversion of kilns, the invention of pottery wheels, as well as the quality of pottery materials such as painting and glazing. The time of glazing began to allow waterproofing, as well as painting and beautification of containers and pottery and the preparation of tiles around 5,000 years ago.

Tile History

The earliest forms of tile date back to pre-historic times when the use of clay as a building material was developed in several early civilizations . Early modern tiles were roughly shaped and lacked the durability of modern tiles. Tile materials were extracted from the riverbeds in the building blocks and dried in the sun. Early tiles were crude, but even 6,000 years ago people used them for decoration by painting and carving delicate tiles.

The Evolution of the Tile

1 – Firing Tile

The ancient Egyptians were the first to discover the clay tiles cooked in the furnace were more durable and water-resistant . Many ancient civilizations used small square clay cooked tiles for decoration in architecture . The buildings of the ancient cities of Mesopotamia were decorated with red glazed pottery and colorful tiles.

2 – Glazing Tile

Iranian tiles were influenced by tiles imported from China. These tiles were used for decorative purposes throughout South Asia, North Africa, Spain and even Europe. Since Islamic art originated from the human imagination and was instrumental in the development of Islamic religion, craftsmen turned to tiles of light color and complex texture or texture. Bold enamel tiles were arranged in patterns of large mosaics and subtle color changes. Muslim craftsmen used metallic oxides such as tin, copper, cobalt, magnesium and antimony to glaze the tile, which made the glaze stronger and firmer. In the 15th century, metal oxide glazed tiles became common in Italy and gradually penetrated among northern Italian craftsmen. Important European business centers paid attention to these local motifs, with some of these tiles still being used, such as Delft (from Delft in the Netherlands) and Magulica (from Mallorca in Spain).

3 – Modern Tile

Most commercial construction companies today use the Press Dust method. The mixture is first pressed to the desired shape and then glazed (may not be glazed as well) and then baked in the oven. Some artisans may produce the tiles in the desired shape by pressing mortar or flattening the dough and cutting it using a mold like pastry. Whatever the method of cutting the tile, it needs to be cooked to harden. Clay purity, cooking time and furnace temperature are factors that influence the price and quality of the tile. Furnace temperature varies from 900 to 2,500 degrees Fahrenheit. The lower the furnace temperature, the higher the porosity of the tile and the softer the glaze. Higher temperatures produce denser tiles and firmer glazing.

Anti Acid Tiles

Anti Acid Tiles are porcelain tiles manufactured using special non ferrous clay, processed at extremely high temperatures. This process leads to fusion of the raw materials and formation of a compact body with extremely low water absorption of less than 0.5%. As a result, formation of a compact porcelain body brings high flexural strength and hardness, low probability of reaction with chemical materials and consequently long life in environments in contact with acid or alkali materials (or generally corrosive materials).
Anti-acid tiles, in Iran, normally are produced according to instructions of Iran National 3051 Standard or relevant ASTM/DIN standards which ensure excellent performance in Acid/Alkali/Chemical environments.

Applications of Anti-Acid Tiles

Anti-acid tiles can be used in different environments which chemical materials are used there. Some examples of these applications are as follow :

• Industrial floors in contact with corrosive chemical materials
• Floor and surrounding area of tanks containing chemical materials
• Floor of food Industry factories
• Floor and walls of alkaline battery rooms and control rooms
• Plants of mineral materials extraction
• Walls and floor of washing and painting areas

Size of Anti-Acid Tiles

Anti-acid tiles can be produced in different sizes, but more common sizes in the global market are: 30×30, 40×40, & 60×60 centimeters. Thicknesses of these tiles usually can be in the range from 8 to 25mm. Anti-acid tiles provide excellent abrasion resistance beside aesthetic appearance.

Factors affecting the creep of porcelain tiles should be related to the microstructure of the tiles. These pores are usually aggregated and consist of decomposition of specific impurities. The origin of the microcracks are varies, though in particular as a result of the discrepancy between the residual quartz particles and the glass matrix and the spray dryer powder granule junctions that did not deform during the full press.

The creep is very high in porcelain tile pieces due to the growth of microcracks in the tile when the tile is exposed to tensile stress. Therefore, the factors that create these microcracks determine the creep in these types of tiles. Thus increasing the amount of quartz, such as particle size, creates microstructures with a larger number of microcracks, which probably increases the tile creep. This can also happen when the compound is not sufficiently milled.

The effect of dry coloring on creep is that the piece over time is subjected to creep, which is very rapid at the beginning and is fixed over time. The piece with pigment has a significantly higher tension than the piece without pigment, indicating that the deformation capacity under pressure is much higher for the colored piece.

The pieces with pigment have a higher creep that can be attributed to the microstructure of this type of tile where particles pigments are concentrated in certain areas of the piece.

These areas can act as microtransfer defects when higher percentages of pigments are used, those growth under certain stresses can create more creep. There are, of course, color patterns that show no delayed curvature. However, despite the asymmetric residual stresses on the tiles, and other equal factors, the tiles that exhibit the highest creep are likely to withstand time changes.

The evolution of curvature over the time for glazed porcelain tiles, when the minimum curvature of the glazing tile was observed (24 h, 0.37 mm) practically is simultaneous with the maximum curvature in the tile without glaze detected in the (23 h, 1.02 mm). This behavior may be due to the different expansion rates between the top and the bottom of the tile, since the tiles are firing with the same cycle of the kiln and therefore the residual stresses due to cooling must be similar. The same behavior has been observed in porcelain tiles without coating, which seems to indicate a very high effect of glaze evolution of curvature over the time.

The cooling stage in industrial roller kiln has rapid initial cooling by injecting air into the kiln at ambient temperature. This type of cooling produces a high temperature gradient between the surface and the inner part of the tile, resulting in residual stresses that can cause delayed curvature In symmetric cooling (segment in vertical possition), both sides of the segment cool equally.

And in asymmetric cooling (the piece is placed horizontally on a refractory board) in this case, cooling is basically done from above. In both cases, the two surfaces of the parts are subjected to compressive stress, while the inner part of the part is under pressure, which is the same situation in ceramic materials. Cooling also has a significant effect on the stress diagram. Therefore, when the test piece is cooled equally on both layers (the cooled piece in a vertical position), the stress diagram is symmetric, while the piece is on a horizontal position on the refractory slab (asymmetric cooling) displays asymmetric diagram. This results in a difference in the amount of cooling through the top and the bottom of the segment, which can lead to asymmetric diagram.

Delayed Curvature in Porcelain Tiles – Part 1

A significant percentage of porcelain tiles exhibit a phenomenon called “Delayed Curvature”. That includes a change in tile curvature after leaving the kiln. This phenomenon becomes problematic with increasing the size of the tile. Factors affecting delayed curvature can be categorized as direct and indirect factors. Direct factors include expansion of the body and release of residual stress.

The expansion of the porcelain tile body begins as the tile exits the industrial kiln. Expansion is very fast at first and reaches about 0.18% after 96 hours; however, the result depends on the composition used and the highest kiln temperature. If there is an overlap between the expansion of the top and the bottom of the tile, for example, a 0.1% difference in 410*410 mm tile expansion can cause a curvature of about 0.3 mm .

تاب تاخیری در کاشی های پرسلان بخش اول

Even if the overall expansion of both surfaces is the same, differences in the expansion kinetics can cause changes in the tile curvature . Another direct factor affecting tile curvature are residual stresses in the tile that can be due to two reasons

1- Stresses caused by the rapid cooling of the tile in the industrial kiln, which causes thermal gradients in the tile .

2 – the stresses produced by the glazed body. Because the body is thicker than glaze and it has a relatively high elasticity .

There must be a mechanism to release the tile from these stresses, which is known as creep.

Among the factors that indirectly influence the delayed curvature are :

1 – Materials (Sprayer Powder, Particle Size, Mineralogy, glaze and chemical compounds)

2 – Process (kiln cycle, the highest kiln temperature, residence time in kiln) that this leads to changes in the ceramic tile (Microstructure, existence of different phases, modulus of elasticity, temperature expansion, environmental conditions, relative humidity and temperature).

تاب تاخیری در کاشی های پرسلان بخش اول

Expansion of ceramic bodies due to moisture is a well-known feature. Moisture expansion of ceramic bodies is due to the physical and chemical absorption of water molecules at free capacities in the hydrated phases present in the samples removed from the kiln. For this reason, the expansion depends largely on the porous structure of the segment (which determines its access to water more or less) and the nature and amount of phases in the part removed from the kiln.

These properties are greatly influenced by the mineralogical composition , Particle size and firing schedule. Therefore, as the melting temperature of the body composition and the firing temperature or the residence time increases, the moisture expansion of these bodies due to porosity and the amount of hydrate phases reduced .

When the maximum kiln temperature is reached, the porcelain tile is composed of a large amount of liquid phase, quartz and residual albite, and sometimes mullite .

تاب تاخیری در کاشی های پرسلان بخش اول

In this case, the piece is able to release any tension applied to it, as it is highly deformable. In the cooling phase, the residual stresses in the tiles, either due to a mismatch between the body layers and the glaze, or due to different shrinkage resulting from the higher cooling velocity in outer regions relative to the center of the piece. Therefore, the factors that determine the residual stresses of porcelain tiles are in principle the thermal expansion and modulus of elasticity of the body and the glaze relative thickness and the cooling rate of the tile. It has been observed that mismatches than thermal expansion of both layers increase the residual stress. In addition, as the cooling time get faster, the temperature gradient inside the tile, increase resulting in different contraction rates at the tile cross-section, which creates a stress profile within the tile that increases with cooling velocity increases .

In addition, when the cooling rate on both sides of the tile is not the same (common situation in the furnace rollers), the resulting stress profile is not symmetric.

Application of nanotechnology in ceramic tile industry

Nanotechnology has been dubbed the fourth wave of the industrial revolution. A remarkable phenomenon that has emerged as a necessity in all scientific disciplines and is one of the new technologies that is evolving at a tremendous pace. Since the early 1980s, we have been seeing new innovations in materials design every day that are more efficient in strength, appearance, durability and durability than traditional materials. Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary science that deals with the fields of material engineering, medicine, pharmacy and drug design, veterinary, biology, applied physics, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, chemical engineering, and agricultural engineering. Analysts believe that nanotechnology, biotechnology, and information and communication technology (ICT) are the three sciences that shape the Fourth Industrial Revolution.

The introduction of nanotechnology into the industry has created increased value in products. Among the industries where nanotechnology has been able to generate significant benefits is the ceramic tile industry. In the ceramic tile industry, nanotechnology has been instrumental in the manufacturing of raw materials for the industry. For example, nano materials can be described as a coating that is applied to the surface of polished ceramics by equipment in order to obtain certain characteristics in the final product. The three main uses of the nanocomposites in these products are to waterproof tile surfaces, to stain them, and to increase gloss and surface transparency.

Definition of the word NANO

A nanometer is a millimeter and a millimeter. Any material can be transformed into smaller nanometer-sized particles by specific methods. At this scale, the physical, chemical, and biological properties of atoms and molecules are different from the normal properties of matter, such that small scales of material appear to have unique and different properties, giving rise to new achievements in different sciences.

Nanotechnology

In general, nanotechnology means the engineering of materials in atomic dimensions and the fabrication of materials with completely unique and different properties on the nanometer scale. One nanometer for different materials is about the size of 5 to 100 atoms. The physical, chemical, and biological properties of matter in these dimensions are quite different from those in the macro-scale. Nano-materials for different and unique properties must be less than 100 nm in at least one dimension (length, width, height) in order to observe changes in properties relative to larger particles. For example, nano-antibacterial substances are at least one dimension below 100 nm, and their antibacterial properties are clearly visible in such a way that these nanomaterials can destroy the life-cycle of bacteria. Other forms of nanomaterials include :

Nanoparticles : The particles of matter are plated together and are below 100 nm in one dimension and have different properties than their blocking state.
Nanomaterials and Nanotubes : They are hollow and hollow in shape and are less than 100 nm in two dimensions and have different properties than their bulk state.
Nanoparticles : They are below 100 nm in three dimensions and have different properties than their bulk state.

Applications of nanotechnology in the ceramic tile industry include

Antibacterial Products

These types of tiles have the ability to kill germs by different mechanisms by having specific nanoparticles in their glaze formulation. Antibacterial nanoparticles generally kill the germs through mechanisms such as direct contact with the bacterium, cell wall destruction, cell membrane destruction, DNA damage, altered metabolic system, respiratory dysfunction, and inactivation of proteins present in the bacterium.

Photocatalyst Products

These tiles have photocatalytic nanoparticles, which means that catalytically enhances the catalytic activity by irradiating the surface. Photocatalytic nanoparticles produce free hydroxyl radicals and free oxygen at the tile surface. This ability to decompose organic contaminants, undesirable odors and antibacterial properties. This type of tile is called Selfcleaning or Easycleaning.

Nanopolysh products

These tiles prevent the particles from settling on the tile surface by making their hydrophobic properties on the surface and facilitate their washing and cleaning. Polymer-type coatings are sometimes used to create hydrophobic surfaces on these products that are not nanometers; nano-hydrophobic tiles must have nanometer-sized particles in order to perform the penetration mechanism and exhibit their true performance. Some companies use metal oxide particles to increase coating strength.

Basic polyurethane waxes

These types of waxes are not nanostructured and only form a thin polymeric layer on the tile, causing the bottom to be filled and the tiles to be filled.
Types of nano materials used in the ceramic tile industry
Nano Materials A : These materials contain inorganic nanoparticles (mainly silica) and because they are very small in size and nanometer-sized, they easily cover all pores on the polished tile and increase their gloss.
Nano Materials B : This type of material is applied to the tile after the nanocrystalline A material and forms a polymeric layer containing functional groups on the surface of the tile and pores filled by type A nanomaterial.

Digitization and Big Data in the Ceramic Tile Industry

The globalization of the economy and the arrival of the fourth industrial revolution, or digitalization of industry, means that we need to know the environment better, and companies need to know how to manage production and distribution in order to improve their decision-making and time-saving processes, and ultimately industrial activities. And most importantly they need to know more about their customers. Focusing on production, product and sales in recent decades has led us to focus on customers. For this reason, Big Data has to be considered in processes and resource allocation, and ultimately companies need to learn how to manage their intangible assets alongside their tangible assets.

This process starts with the customer and ends with the customer. For this reason, companies need to do their utmost to properly manage the flow of information in their environment and to have the necessary information and data in a timely and complete manner to help the organization in its business management decisions. Help and build strength. In this new digital-physical world, new principles are emerging in the ceramic tile industry. Such as website traffic analysis, inbound marketing, selling through electronic platforms or e-commerce sales channels. All of which points to the need to work with individuals or teams that have digital skills and are fully aligned with company sales and marketing policies.

One of the indicators for measuring the level of involvement and use of information technologies by companies active in the industry is the digital skill coefficient of individuals and companies. This is an index that indicates the level of knowledge and executive ability of companies in digital skills. Give. In fact, it seems that the digital skills that should be available to companies are not yet fully recognized, despite the fact that in the business world these tools have long existed and are very effective in relation to corporate sales and marketing policies. Be. The very rapid development and ever-expanding evolution of new technologies has made it difficult to stay up to date and only leading technology companies can move along.

In the context of global trade and investment in global technologies and R&D & I, the ceramics industry has also implemented Big Data technology in resource allocation and processes over the past few years. In fact, there is a growing interest in Big Data implementation among ceramic companies in their management and decision making processes. Research results show that the use of new information technology in ceramic companies is already in its infancy and is gradually growing. Today, special focus is on the process of production, sales, product development and maintaining and improving business turnover.

The use of social networks in the ceramic industry has a limited scope and is not seen as a necessity. The use of images, videos and photos is more than anything else. Currently surveys in European countries, companies active in the industry are making the most use of Facebook as a social network in the ceramics industry, followed by YouTube, Instagram and Twitter. These companies use social networks directly in their relationships with distributors, suppliers and customers. The main reasons for using and sharing information and content on social networks are to observe the performance and performance of competitors and what other professional companies have to say about the industry and what programs they have, as well as supplier and What activities do distributors in the value chain do?
One of the main reasons that industry executives focus on using social networks is generally to promote their brand and products, as well as develop business strategies and manage communications.

Finding new products, viewing the competition and researching and updating information about the ceramic tile industry and related sectors are other aspects of using these networks. It takes place within companies and only in some companies does it get outside experts and teams of experts. Therefore the use of new information technologies to manage and improve customer communication is still in its infancy.

Analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the Iranian ceramic tile industry

Strengths

The tangible growth of Iran’s ceramic tile figures in the last two decades shows the potential and strengths of this important industry. A comparison of the strengths of the ceramic tile industry across Iran and the world shows that these strengths are somewhat common throughout the world and some of them are specific to Iran. The most important strengths of the ceramic tile industry are :

Native industry

In the field of industrial activities of the country, the field that is old and still has good performance is scarce. Iran’s ceramic tile industry is one of the most important indigenous industries in the country. In most archaeological discoveries, earthenware is seen as an important means of living for ancient Iranians, and from that time on, raw materials (eg clay) were found in the country for the production of earthenware. At present, the industry is performing relatively well compared to other industries in the country.

As an Iranian art

Another important factor in the success of the Iranian ceramic tile industry is the application of Iranian taste, art and taste in the products of this industry. Iranian taste and art can certainly lead to significant success in this industry.

Access to resources and raw materials

Another major advantage of the ceramic tile industry is the presence of over 30% of its raw materials produced domestically. By focusing on raw material processing and making the necessary investments, it can prevent the import of raw materials, currency outflows, delays in supplying materials and problems for manufacturers.

The dynamics of the ceramic tile industry

The ceramic tile industry is a dynamic industry and can adapt quickly to the changing needs and tastes of the community. Using up-to-date technologies in factories can easily change the color, design, size and other parameters of ceramic tile products and produce different products depending on customer needs and tastes in different markets. This flexibility is not seen in some other industries, such as the automotive industry, and even the entire production line equipment needs to be replaced to produce a variety of products for different markets and sectors. Customer needs will be very difficult.

Relatively high added value

Although ceramic tile products are part of traditional ceramics in the category of ceramics, they have a relatively high added value due to the advantages mentioned in this article. Today, this industry is one of the few industries in the country that has a relatively good profit margin, including the reason for the good consumer market that exists within the country and its neighbors.

Weak points

Supply and demand mismatch

Due to lack of proper planning of production capacity of the country and allocation of large volume of investments in this industry, we are faced with surplus production in Iran, which is one of the main reasons for high tendency to invest in this industry. No. The main problem here is the lack of scientific research on the market and consumption of these products and, more interestingly, the investments sometimes made by people who are not familiar with the industry and are only thinking about achieving high profit in the short run.

Incomplete industrial rings

Due to the lack of proper strategy and planning in the industry, most of the investments were made only on a part of the large-scale industry, which involved only the purchase of ceramic tile machinery and equipment. Research shows that there has been no significant planning and activity in the field of raw material processing as well as the design and manufacture of machinery, equipment and components required by the industry.

Requires high volume of labor and energy

It may be widely believed that access to cheap manpower is one of the advantages of Iranian industries, but domestic productivity is about one-seventh of the developed countries. Also, in our country there is no culture and training on how to use energy efficiently and every year in different sectors, including industry, a lot of energy is wasted. Therefore, costs resulting from low labor efficiency and non-compliance with the principles of optimum use of energy increase the cost of finished products and in many cases reduce the ability to compete in international markets from Iranian kangaroo production.

Lack of cohesion and industrial memory

What is evident in the activities of manufacturing companies in this area is that in different parts of the industry, less memory is used in the past. The industrial units of the country experience each problem individually and sometimes secretly and at high cost alone. While many issues and issues within companies are similar and likely to have already been resolved, there are experiences within the country. Institutions in the leading countries of the industry, including Spain and Italy, have established missions whose mission is to create a focal point for gathering experience and information in the industry so that individuals can work with appropriate solutions without error and error. To find their problems.

Not paying attention to the role of raw materials and their processing

As the issue of incomplete loops in the industry suggests, failure to complete these loops in the field of raw materials has led to higher costs due to the importation of some materials. For example, despite the abundance of kaolin resources and mines in Iran, due to the lack of knowledge and investment in the field in the country, the costs of importing these materials are borne by the manufacturers while the factories through joint ventures. They can solve this problem in groups.

Lack of marketing system, export infrastructure and international distribution channels

By looking at the branding, marketing, and sales processes of major and major ceramic tile companies, and comparing them with the activities of Iranian companies, there are significant differences. Many of the industry’s leading companies have marketing, sales, and distribution channels and have access to lucrative international markets. Proper business and political interactions with countries such as Turkey can help create a proper marketing and distribution system.

Energy consumption optimization and energy reduction strategies In the ceramic tile industry

Energy plays an important role in the various economic sectors as a productive input alongside labor and capital, and is one of the main pillars of the country’s economic growth and development. Given the significant share of the country’s total energy consumption in industry and the low efficiency of energy use in industries compared to the global average, this necessitates addressing this issue. Energy management analysis in industries is one of the most important topics in economic research. Given the rapid growth of the country’s ceramic tile industry in the last decade and the energy being consumed by the industry, the importance of energy management in this industry is doubling. The results indicate that there is a great potential for energy consumption reduction in the Iranian ceramic tile industries, which is achieved by the establishment of energy management systems and the application of technology-based solutions and equipment in the factories and a significant share of the related costs. It reduces energy and increases the competitiveness of companies in global markets.

Industrial growth and economic development largely depend on the amount and level of efficient use of energy carriers. Iran’s per capita final energy consumption in the agricultural, domestic, public and commercial sectors, transportation and industry is 3.3, 1.9, 1.7, 1.5 times the global average and 1.6 times the natural gas consumption, respectively. Energy intensity is a measure of energy efficiency at the national economy level of each country that is calculated by dividing the final energy consumption (or primary energy supply) by GDP. Iran is one of the countries with high energy intensity. In 2014, the world’s primary energy supply intensity index based on exchange rate and purchasing power parity in Iran was more than 2.7 and 1.4 times the world average. Energy efficiency indexes such as labor and capital productivity measure the rate of output of goods and services produced compared to inputs.

The energy efficiency index is obtained by dividing the value of the products by the amount of energy consumed (the inverse of the final energy consumption). To calculate national energy efficiency, GDP can be divided by the amount of final energy consumption. As can be seen in Table 4, end-use consumption is broken down by sector, and the industry sector has a major share of Radar Energy consumption. According to available statistics, Iran’s final energy consumption per capita is 1.71 times the world average and its natural gas consumption per capita is 1.6 times the world average. Iran’s per capita energy consumption in industrial sectors is 1.5 times the world average and 4.8 percent of urban living costs are related to energy costs and 61 percent carbon dioxide from natural gas combustion.

One of the most notable developments in the energy field over the past several decades has been a significant reduction in energy intensity in developed countries, which can be attributed to the presence of technology-efficient manufacturing plants that make the most use of production factors including energy. Whereas developing countries have a lower share of renewable energy with lower energy efficiency and industrial production orientation towards lower technology and higher energy products.Technology activity levels are among the most important contributors to the energy intensity of the manufacturing industry, with increasing economic activity levels increasing energy consumption, while improving technology at the same activity level reduces energy consumption and thus decreases energy intensity.

Time and energy in any industry are among the most likely to be wasted among all inputs. Energy feeds a large part of technology and machinery into various manufacturing activities, and without energy a large portion of capital cannot be set up and used.

Energy consumption optimization and energy reduction strategies

Following are the strategies that have been investigated in recent research to reduce energy consumption and obtain acceptable results in energy reduction :

1- Using regenerative burners for high operating temperatures will save fuel consumption by combustion air preheating and increase combustion efficiency.
2- Using improved burners for high temperatures, wasted temperatures and exhaust gas are collected from the burner nozzle body and the heat output from the burner nozzle increases.
3. Application of modified recuperator burners for medium and high temperatures through pre-heating mechanism.
4- Preheating the inlet air to the system increases combustion efficiency.
5- In hot tube systems, these tubes have high heat transfer efficiency and have the least heat loss during long distances during transmission, keeping them low cost. Compared to other heat exchangers, they have low running costs.

6. Thermoelectric generators generate electricity directly from the waste heat and do not need to convert thermal energy to mechanical and then mechanical to electrical.
7. Thermionic generator equipment is used to recover lost heat at high temperatures and generates electricity through the temperature difference between two interfaces without the use of mechanical actuators.
8- Generator equipment converts radiant energy into electricity directly and has higher efficiency than other direct electrical converting equipment.
9. Heat pumps transfer heat from the source to the location needed for use (with low energy consumption) with minimal loss.
10. Vertical Driver Gas Inlet Control System As a function of indoor air humidity, the quality of the tire’s moisture content was not affected by the tire’s humidity, reducing the driver’s gas volume by 45% to only 9.9% of the tile’s thermal energy consumption.
11- Thermal oil based recovery system increases the amount of thermal recovery in the furnace exhaust and reduces energy consumption in the drive.


طراحی توسط واحد انفورماتیک گروه صنعتی کاشی تبریز