Application of nanotechnology in ceramic tile industry
Nanotechnology has been dubbed the fourth wave of the industrial revolution. A remarkable phenomenon that has emerged as a necessity in all scientific disciplines and is one of the new technologies that is evolving at a tremendous pace. Since the early 1980s, we have been seeing new innovations in materials design every day that are more efficient in strength, appearance, durability and durability than traditional materials. Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary science that deals with the fields of material engineering, medicine, pharmacy and drug design, veterinary, biology, applied physics, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, chemical engineering, and agricultural engineering. Analysts believe that nanotechnology, biotechnology, and information and communication technology (ICT) are the three sciences that shape the Fourth Industrial Revolution.
The introduction of nanotechnology into the industry has created increased value in products. Among the industries where nanotechnology has been able to generate significant benefits is the ceramic tile industry. In the ceramic tile industry, nanotechnology has been instrumental in the manufacturing of raw materials for the industry. For example, nano materials can be described as a coating that is applied to the surface of polished ceramics by equipment in order to obtain certain characteristics in the final product. The three main uses of the nanocomposites in these products are to waterproof tile surfaces, to stain them, and to increase gloss and surface transparency.
Definition of the word NANO
A nanometer is a millimeter and a millimeter. Any material can be transformed into smaller nanometer-sized particles by specific methods. At this scale, the physical, chemical, and biological properties of atoms and molecules are different from the normal properties of matter, such that small scales of material appear to have unique and different properties, giving rise to new achievements in different sciences.
In general, nanotechnology means the engineering of materials in atomic dimensions and the fabrication of materials with completely unique and different properties on the nanometer scale. One nanometer for different materials is about the size of 5 to 100 atoms. The physical, chemical, and biological properties of matter in these dimensions are quite different from those in the macro-scale. Nano-materials for different and unique properties must be less than 100 nm in at least one dimension (length, width, height) in order to observe changes in properties relative to larger particles. For example, nano-antibacterial substances are at least one dimension below 100 nm, and their antibacterial properties are clearly visible in such a way that these nanomaterials can destroy the life-cycle of bacteria. Other forms of nanomaterials include :
Nanoparticles : The particles of matter are plated together and are below 100 nm in one dimension and have different properties than their blocking state.
Nanomaterials and Nanotubes : They are hollow and hollow in shape and are less than 100 nm in two dimensions and have different properties than their bulk state.
Nanoparticles : They are below 100 nm in three dimensions and have different properties than their bulk state.
Applications of nanotechnology in the ceramic tile industry include
These types of tiles have the ability to kill germs by different mechanisms by having specific nanoparticles in their glaze formulation. Antibacterial nanoparticles generally kill the germs through mechanisms such as direct contact with the bacterium, cell wall destruction, cell membrane destruction, DNA damage, altered metabolic system, respiratory dysfunction, and inactivation of proteins present in the bacterium.
These tiles have photocatalytic nanoparticles, which means that catalytically enhances the catalytic activity by irradiating the surface. Photocatalytic nanoparticles produce free hydroxyl radicals and free oxygen at the tile surface. This ability to decompose organic contaminants, undesirable odors and antibacterial properties. This type of tile is called Selfcleaning or Easycleaning.
These tiles prevent the particles from settling on the tile surface by making their hydrophobic properties on the surface and facilitate their washing and cleaning. Polymer-type coatings are sometimes used to create hydrophobic surfaces on these products that are not nanometers; nano-hydrophobic tiles must have nanometer-sized particles in order to perform the penetration mechanism and exhibit their true performance. Some companies use metal oxide particles to increase coating strength.
Basic polyurethane waxes
These types of waxes are not nanostructured and only form a thin polymeric layer on the tile, causing the bottom to be filled and the tiles to be filled.
Types of nano materials used in the ceramic tile industry
Nano Materials A : These materials contain inorganic nanoparticles (mainly silica) and because they are very small in size and nanometer-sized, they easily cover all pores on the polished tile and increase their gloss.
Nano Materials B : This type of material is applied to the tile after the nanocrystalline A material and forms a polymeric layer containing functional groups on the surface of the tile and pores filled by type A nanomaterial.